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Research at Virginia Tech Seeks to Understand Interactions Between Predators and Whitetailed Deer

At the turn of the last century, the wildlife and forest resources in much of the country were decimated following more than a century of habitat destruction and unregulated market hunting. Natural resources seemed limitless in the early years of our large nation, a notion later disproved during the late 19th century. Sportsmen were the first to sound the call to action, with a conservation movement that created state wildlife management agencies, funded through a combination of hunting license sales and excise taxes on equipment such as firearms and ammunition. This movement also motivated the creation of public lands that many of us currently use in various outdoor pursuits. This successful model of conservation we enjoy today has become known as the North American Model of Wildlife Management and Virginia exemplifies this model.

Virginia Tech graduate students David Mcnitt and Robert Alonso are conducting the Carnivore study in Virginia’s Bath and Rockingham Counties. The bear trap pictured here is an important part of this project. The trapping phase and radio collaring of black bears, coyotes and bobcats is well underway. Bear GPS collars are expected to provide data through December 2019. The GPS collars have been attached to 22 bears, 17 coyotes and 21 bobcats.

There was a time when even whitetailed deer, ducks, and wild turkey were at perilously low numbers in the state. Today, Virginia contains robust populations of many wildlife species. Some carnivore species have recently joined the ranks of recovered wildlife in Virginia. Managers and researchers are now facing the complexity of understanding and managing these carnivores and their role in ecosystems, particularly in the large expanses of public lands in western Virginia. To add to the complexity, a newcomer is on the landscape, the coyote. These complexities, and our need to understand them, led to the creation of the initial Virginia Appalachian Coyote Study (VACS) in 2011, and the current follow-up study, the Virginia Appalachian Carnivore Study (VACS II).

Black bears and bobcats, two of Virginia’s native carnivores took a long time to recover. Harvest records indicate that only in recent decades have these species’ populations climbed to their current levels. Also, in recent decades, coyotes extended into Virginia as part of the species’ eastward range expansion. Carnivores play a significant role in ecosystems; therefore, it is essential that we gain local information on these species and their interactions with other species, namely prey species. A decrease in deer harvest on public lands in counties west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, coinciding with the apparent increase of predator populations, and a decrease in suitable deer habitat, presents a fitting location to investigate the role of carnivores in the area.

Robert Alonso attaches a GPS collar to one of the 17 coyotes that have been trapped. The coyote collars will collect data until around April 2019.

The Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (DGIF) initiated VACS prompted by support from local deer hunters in western Virginia and the Virginia Deer Hunters Association. VDGIF granted funding to Dr. Marcella Kelly, professor in Virginia Tech’s Fish and Wildlife Conservation Department, to enlist two graduate students to study population status, diet, and spatial ecology of coyotes in western Virginia. The study was based in Bath and Rockingham Counties. Findings from that study revealed that whitetailed deer occurred in 74% of coyote scats but were also found in 35% and 43% of bobcat and bear scats, respectively.

The diet findings from the initial coyote study prompted further research questions regarding all three of the carnivore species. Coyotes, bobcats, and black bears have all been documented as both scavengers and predators of whitetailed deer throughout their geographic ranges to varying degrees. The initial diet findings showed us that all three species feed on deer, but do not resolve how much of the consumption is scavenging versus direct predation. Those findings also do not indicate how many deer are consumed, as one deer carcass can contribute to the contents of many carnivore scats. In a multi-carnivore landscape, it is not only important to understand the roles of each species individually, it is also important to understand these species as a carnivore community to understand any potential impacts on whitetailed deer. The initial coyote study also highlighted the fact that both black bears and coyotes have been previously studied in western Virginia, but very little information regarding bobcats exists for the entire Central Appalachian region.

The VACS II project was created in response to these questions. In 2016 VDGIF granted funding to conduct research on coyotes and bobcats. Additional funding was provided by VDHA, the Safari Club International Foundation, and private donors to include bears in the research project. PhD student Robert Alonso and Masters student Dave McNitt were brought on to conduct the research, which is focused in Bath County. The primary goal of VACS II is to better understand the role of coyotes, bobcats, and black bears as whitetailed deer predators and scavengers in Central Appalachia. We also aim to increase basic knowledge of all three species, particularly bobcats, for which local ecology is poorly understood. We are using multiple research techniques to answer our questions, many of which rely on the latest technology.

Our principal technique is the use of GPS collars. We have spent much of the past two years capturing and collaring coyotes, bobcats, and black bears in western Bath County. Over the course of the project, we have collared a total of 17 coyotes (9 males, 8 females), 21 bobcats (14 males, 7 females), and 22 bears (14 males, 8 females). Currently in the field, we have 10 functioning GPS collars on coyotes, 8 functioning collars on bobcats and 13 functioning collars on bears. Coyote collars will finish collecting data around April, 2019. The bobcat collars will last roughly until October of this year, and bear collars will last up through December of 2019. The GPS collars we are using communicate data to us via satellites on a regular basis. Receiving the data in almost real time allows us to track the animals on the ground and search for potential kill or scavenging sites.

We determine the locations to investigate by looking for spatial clusters of points that indicate a place where a collared animal has spent a long amount of time. Although we are specifically trying to find scavenging sites or kill sites of whitetailed deer, commonly these clusters end up being bed sites. Sometimes we also find feeding sites on other types of prey such as skunks, groundhogs, and opossums. In the case of bears, we often find general foraging areas where they have foraged on soft mast, flipped rocks, or dug at old rotten logs. Over the summer of 2017, we investigated 83 coyote clusters, 30 bear clusters, and 29 bobcat clusters to search for predation and scavenging events on whitetailed deer. Over the winter of 2017 and 2018, we investigated 38 coyote clusters and 34 bobcat clusters to search for predation and scavenging events on whitetailed deer. Analysis of our cluster search data is pending.

David Mcnitt collars one of the 21 bobcats that is part of the study while Robert Alonso and Dr. Marcella Kelly watch. Data collection from the bobcats will last roughly through October of 2018.

The GPS collars are also fitted with accelerometers, which collect fine scale activity data. These accelerometers collect such fine scale data that we can detect whether an animal is walking, running, feeding, or bedded down. We aim to use this activity data, linked with the GPS collar data, to help tease apart which clusters of GPS points represent resting sites, scavenging sites, or direct predation events. In addition, 10 of the bear collars also contain video cameras, cutting-edge technology which will provide rare footage from the bear’s perspective, hopefully capturing footage of predation or scavenging behavior. Unlike the GPS collar data that is transmitted to us via satellite, we must physically retrieve the collars to get the activity data from accelerometer unit. While some collars have drop-off devices, we largely rely on cooperation of hunters to return collars from harvested animals.

We also monitor deer carcasses with remote cameras to understand scavenging hierarchy, interactions, and competition among the three predators at carcass sites. From 2017-2018 we established and monitored 36 scavenging sites with remote cameras in Bath County and in Giles County. Preliminary analysis on a portion of our scavenging sites has examined the amount of time it takes each carnivore species to discover a carcass, time spent feeding, and number of returns, for each carnivore species. Most carcasses were discovered by predators within five hours to a few days following establishment of the carcass site. Black bears discovered carcasses first in 50% of scavenging sites, followed by bobcats (37% of the time), then coyotes (13% of the time). When multiple species visited carcasses, coyotes were most frequently the second species to arrive and bears were most frequently the first and third species to arrive, while bobcats never visited after two other species had been there. Bears had the most overall returns to carcasses (29) after an initial visit. Coyotes spent the longest average amount of time feeding per carcass per night per site (2.75 minutes), while bobcats had the longest total time feeding across all carcass sites (748 minutes). Data entry is ongoing at Virginia Tech with the assistance of undergraduate volunteers. Carcass sites are continually being deployed and monitored to continue to collect scavenging data and document predator behavior and interactions.

The final technique we use in our research is genetic analysis of fecal DNA collected from large scale scat surveys across western Bath County, which we use to track deer consumption rates over the course of the study. During this project, we completed two periods of scat collection, hiking transects on trails and dirt roads that total over 100 miles in length. In June and July, 2016, we collected 1085 scat samples. Of those samples 669 contained enough DNA to identify predator species, with 310 bobcat scats, 245 bear scats, and 113 coyote scats. We are currently in the process of working with a wildlife genetics lab at the University of Idaho to identify how many of those scats contained DNA from deer. This winter/spring we completed our last round of predator scat transects during the months of March and April, 2018. In total, we collected 1128 samples which will be analyzed this fall and next spring to identify the predator species. Once predator species has been identified we will determine how many scats also contain deer DNA.

The end of summer 2018 marks the completion of the field work phase of the study. The following months will involve organizing data, running analyses, and presenting results. Genetic analyses are currently underway. Many hours of photos and videos from carcass sites are currently being processed with the help of undergraduate volunteers and independent study students at Virginia Tech. We will conduct statistical analysis, incorporating all the various types of data, throughout the next year and results will be published and presented as different components of the project are completed. We plan to continue to update VDHA as our research progresses. If you happen to legally harvest a collared bear, bobcat, or coyote this hunting or trapping season please contact us at vtvacs@gmail.com or at (540) 315-3913. We thank VDHA and its members for the continued and consistent support provided to these projects over the years. Stay tuned to Whitetail Times for project updates in the future.

Editor’s note: David Mcnitt and Robert Alonso are two of the eighteen college student recipients that the VDHA Lee Roy Gordon Scholarship Grant has been awarded to since the program was established in 1989. Scholarship grants and funds to purchase equipment needed for research projects has been an important part of this outreach program. The VDHA takes great pride in what we have fulfilled over the last 29 years, through research study. Our organization is proud of what our students have accomplished and look forward to continuing this support!

©Virginia Deer Hunters Association. For attribution information and reprint rights, contact Denny Quaiff, Executive Director, VDHA.

  • April 2nd, 2019

Bear, Deer, Turkey, Harvest Data

2018-19 Bear, Deer, Turkey, Harvest Data Announced

Wildlife biologists with the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries have compiled the preliminary figures for the 2018-19 fall/winter hunting season. The Virginia bear harvests reflected a slight decrease but still the second highest harvest of bears ever in Virginia; deer harvests reflected a slight increase, and the turkey harvests remained about the same.  According to Dr. Gray Anderson, Wildlife Division Chief, “The annual variation in harvest is normal and most populations are healthy and on-track with long-range management plan objectives.” These harvest data are used to inform future regulatory decisions.

For details on the deer, bear and turkey harvest data, visit these links:

  • February 20th, 2019

Hunters for the Hungry Needs Your Support

“We definitely need both deer and the funding to process them.”
Laura Newell-Furniss, Director, Hunters for the Hungry

The 2018-2019 deer season is upon us, and Hunters for the Hungry (HftH) is again calling upon hunters to provide support for their fall/winter campaign. The charitable organization provides meals of healthy venison to Virginians who are hungry and living in poverty.

This year, HftH needs your help more than ever, since the non-profit unexpectedly lost two big corporate sponsors–and, their combined donations of  $70,000–leaving them in a bit of a tight spot just as hunting season begins to ramp up.

HftH could find themselves in the position of having a surplus of venison but not enough cash to reimburse processors for their work. So this year it’s especially important to consider a gift of cash as well as venison.

“We definitely need both deer and the funding to process them. This delicious and nutritious meat really makes a difference to local feeding programs all across the Commonwealth who are working to meet the needs of people who are living in poverty,” says Laura Newell Furniss, Director of Hunters for the Hungry.

All of the venison donated by hunters goes directly to local shelters, foodbanks and soup kitchens across Virginia, where healthy, hot meals are given to the hungry.

“If you can imagine going meal after meal after meal without any quality meat how very much you would appreciate that ground meat, that steak, that roast or that tenderloin you are receiving!  I’ve seen people with tears of appreciation in their eyes, just that grateful,” says Newell Furniss.

Virginia’s hunters have now provided 26.6 million servings of venison since Hunters for the Hungry was founded in 1991. What a testament to the generosity of Virginia’s hunters!

How to Donate

  • It’s easy to donate. Simply drop off your whole, field-dressed deer at one of the more than 80 HftH processors and collection sites located all across the state. Find them here: h4hungry.org
  • At the processor, fill out simple paper work: your address, phone number, game tag number, county of harvest, and date of harvest.  That is all there is to it.
  • And, if you can’t donate a deer, or can but still want to contribute more, HftH also needs help with funds to process the venison. Processors donate their time and effort at a reduced rate. Please consider donating money when you buy your hunting license this year, at www.gooutdoorsvirginia.com. Even if you’ve already purchased your license for this year, HftH is a great reason to return to DGIF’s one-stop-shop license solution to donate separately.  Customers can also donate to HftH at one of the more 500 license agents throughout Virginia, and this year can even set up their donation to auto-renew every year at this time.  Look for options to donate to HftH under “Popular Items” in Go Outdoors Virginia account.  This small contribution fulfills a great need and ensures there will be funds to process all of the deer donated.

Make a Difference: Donate to Help Feed the Hungry

Hunters for the Hungry accepts thousands of pounds of deer each year; however, due to a shortage of funds to process and package the meat, they’re unable to accept thousands more. You can help bridge this gap by making a donation today—it’s not only tax-deductible, it also makes a big difference in the lives of many Virginians!

No contribution is too small! For every $45 received, Hunters for the Hungry can provide 50 pounds of lean red meat to people in need.

  • October 12th, 2018

Virginia’s Urban Archery Season

When I first spotted the mature doe, she was walking idly through the front yard of a Roanoke County suburbanite. By the time the doe was 15 yards from me, I had already trained my crossbow’s scope on her. The shot felt true, and seconds later, the whitetail collapsed about sixty yards away. I had just killed my first deer of the season, and it was still early September.

Welcome to Virginia’s Urban Archery Season which began Saturday, September 1 and continues through October 5 and resumes January 6 through March 31, 2019. Nelson Lafon, deer project leader for the DGIF, believes at least four excellent reasons exist for state sportsmen to participate in this season: it’s a great time to mentor novice adult hunters, take youngsters afield, help manage the state’s deer herd which is often overly abundant in our urban and suburban areas, and gives archers a head start on putting venison in the refrigerator.

This year, Lafon says 52 localities (and they span the state) are participating in the urban season with the town of Buchanan and Stafford and Prince William counties the newest additions. Hunters should be aware that only antlerless deer (both mature does and doe fawns as well as button bucks) can be harvested, and normal deer regulations apply such as tagging and checking.

However, local restrictions apply. For example, in Roanoke County where I predominantly hunt, archers must be afield in a tree stand at least 10 feet above the ground. In Martinsville, archers can only shoot from “temporary platforms elevated at least seven feet above the ground.” In Pearisburg, bow hunters have to be afield on a parcel that is at least two acres and that has been approved by the town manager and chief of police. On the other hand, Poquoson has no special restrictions. I can’t emphasize enough the need to read the specific regulations of the municipality you plan to hunt on. It’s also a good idea to go over those regulations with the folks on whose properties you plan to go afield on.

Paying attention to all these regulations is worth it, though, last year, I had already put three antlerless whitetails in the freezer before the Early Archery Season began. I’ve taken both youngsters and novice adults afield in neighborhood back yards and witnessed their success. In fact, in one case, I experienced the joy of an adult killing his first deer.

So consider participating in Virginia’s Urban Archery Season this year. Chances are whether you’re a rookie adult, a veteran hunter or a youngster, you’ll enjoy your time afield.

Taking someone new with you? Visit Go Outdoors Virginia to Refer a Friend to join you outdoors!

  • September 4th, 2018

2017-18 Bear, Deer, Turkey, Harvest Data Announced

Wildlife biologists with the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (DGIF) have compiled the preliminary figures for the 2017-18 fall/winter hunting season. The Virginia bear and deer harvests reflected an increase from last year and the black bear harvest was the highest ever recorded in Virginia.  Read the rest of this article…

  • February 23rd, 2018

Deer Feeding Ban Begins September 1

Effective September 1st, it will be illegal to feed deer statewide in Virginia. The annual prohibition runs through the first Saturday in January in most of the state, but longer in some areas, as noted below.

  • All feed must be removed from any deer feeding site prior to September 1st.
  • Any area where deer feed has been distributed is considered a “baited” area and cannot be hunted over for 10 days following the complete removal of the food.
  • It is illegal to feed deer or elk in any county, city, or town during any deer or elk hunting season. Urban archery season runs through March and deer seasons run through April in Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, and Prince William counties.
  • It is illegal to feed deer year-round in Buchanan, Clarke, Dickenson, Frederick, Shenandoah, Warren, and Wise counties (including the cities and towns within).
  • These restrictions do not apply to agricultural plantings (including wildlife food plots) or food distributed to livestock.

 Problems with Feeding Deer

Feeding deer can unnaturally increase deer populations and damage natural habitats, increase the likelihood for disease transmission, increase human-deer conflicts such as deer/vehicle collisions, and diminish the wild nature of deer.  Fed deer are often emboldened to seek human foods, leading them into conflict with people.  Feeding deer leads to the prolonged crowding of animals in a small area, resulting in more direct animal to animal contact, contamination of feeding sites, and greater risk of disease transmission.

Deer hunting over bait is illegal in Virginia. Prior to the deer feeding prohibition, distinguishing between who was feeding deer and who was hunting over bait often caused law enforcement problems for the Department’s conservation police officers.

 Report Wildlife Violations

It is clear that the negative consequences of feeding deer outweigh the benefits. If anyone sees or suspects someone of illegally feeding deer during this time period, or observes any wildlife violations, please report it to DGIF’s Wildlife Crime Line at 1-800-237-5712.

  • August 31st, 2017

Nine New CWD Positives Confirmed in Frederick County

Nine new cases of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) were detected in Frederick County during the 2016 deer hunting season. Seven were deer harvested by hunters and two were killed by vehicles.  All of the new cases were detected in the same general areas as previous cases. In total, 22 CWD-positive deer have been detected in Virginia since CWD was first discovered in western Frederick County in fall 2009.  Read the rest of this article…

  • March 14th, 2017

Virginia’s Locavore Deer Hunters

locavore-deerBy Matt Knox, Deer Project Leader, Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries

If you are a deer hunter in Virginia, there is a greater than 99% chance that you are a locavore deer hunter.  I am guessing at this point that many, maybe a majority, of Virginia deer hunters are asking themselves “What is a locavore deer hunter?” Read the rest of this article…

  • November 21st, 2016